Food processing

- Market milk directly by yourself !

Introduction

Direct or self marketing is a way for the dairy farmers to increase the proceeds from the milk and to build a second income (farm shop).
By heat treatment of the milk, such milk can be sold directly to a greater extent (liquid milk) and / or processed to other products (eg cheese, cream cheese, yogurt etc.). The following video shows with which products of the company Etscheid the fresh milk can be treated and how cheese can be prepared.

Background

Many consumers feel the need to buy their basic food directly from the producer known to them. To increase the proceeds from the milk, is a growing number of dairy producers interested in an alternative to dairy delivery. Self- or direct marketing on weekly markets, such as school milk, farm shops or delivering directly to your home, is a possibility for the dairy farmers to sell their products.

Video cheese production

The delivery of fresh, untreated milk from the cooling tank specifying certain safety precautions before consumption has been practiced and allowed on a large scale.

By the treatment of the milk with heat, the milk can be distributed directly on a large scale and be processed into other products (such as cheese, cream cheese, yogurt etc.). This heating takes place either with batch pasteurizers WP or with flow pasteurizers FP. A look at the history shows that the real idea of the milk pasteurizing was to destroy pathogens in the milk. This is still the main purpose of pasteurizing. The durability is practically a pleasant side effect. Not only farmers with price problems are interested in this technology, also organic farms with alternative service sectors such as sheep and goats.

Definitions of terms

  • Raw milk

    Raw milk is according to the M VO the unchanged milk which is not heated above 40°C.
  • Heat treatment of the milk

    There are several heating methods for treatment of the milk. Following methods are distinguished:
    • Thermisation

      The thermisation of the milk takes place in the flow or in the container at 57°C to 68°C for at least 5 seconds. With the thermisation heat sensitive harmful germs such as coliforms, pseudomonads and heat sensitive pathogens such as Ecoli and salmonella are greatly reduced. But there is no safe kill of all pathogens. The thermisation can therefore be used for germ reduction and increase the hygienic safety of cheese and curd. This is the classic application of our Etscheid cheese making vats model KB 50 – KB 450 and KBB 500 – KBB 1500.
    • Pasteurizing

      Pasteurization causes a safe killing of heat sensitive harmful germs and pathogens. The total bacterial count of the fresh pasteurized milk is between 1000 – 10000 organisms per millilitre. Cheese dairy harmful spores, for example Butyric acids, are not killed. By pasteurizing a high hygienic safety of the product is reached in the milk processing on the farm. Even if the milk has been properly pasteurized, germs from the filling device could be reintroduced into the milk from the bottles, the personal or the environment = recontamination.

Overview thermisation and pasteurization

description temperature time type
Thermisation: 57 to 68°C min. 15 seconds in the flow or in the container
 
Pasteurization:
Continuous heating 63 to 66°C 30 to 32 minutes in the container
Short time heating 72 to 74°C 15 to 40 seconds in the flow
High heating 85 to 90°C 2 to 4 seconds in the flow
Ultra high heating 140°C 2 to 4 seconds in the flow
Sterilization 109 to 115°C 20 to 40 seconds in the packing
For the farm direct marketers only continuous pasteurization and short time pasteurization are considered as pasteurization.

Devices for pasteurization

1. Short time heating

The plate pasteurizers used in the short time heating are available from hour capacity of approx. 200 l/h and are suitable mainly for professional marketers of milk with large quantities (> 1000 l/day).

Advantages plate pasteurizer Disadvantages plate pasteurizer
  • heat recovery
  • small amount of energy
  • fast cooling
  • high investment costs
  • high cleaning effort
  • optical cleaning control only possible after opening
  • many parts of the system that need to be disassembled and cleaned regularly
  • risk of extraneous water
  • minimum initial amount

2. Continuous heating

The pasteurizers used in the continuous heating are built from container sizes of 50 l. Batch pasteurizer must have an automatic temperature control and an automatic recording of the heating and cooling temperature. An audible signal provides the display of occurring faults. Uniform heating of the milk in the whole container must be guaranteed. Container outlet and lid must be secured against tampering.

Advantages batch pasteurizer Disadvantages batch pasteurizer
  • Low acquisition cost
  • Container can be used for other dairy products and cheese production
  • Easy cleaning and disinfection
  • Visual control of the cleaning possible
  • Low risk of extraneous water
  • No milk pump necessary
  • Processing of small quantities of milk possible
  • No heat recovery
  • High energy expenditure

Laws – without guarantee!

The milk regulation (short MVO: regulation on hygiene and quality requirements for milk and milk products, milk-based) describes the requirements for the health condition of the animals, the producer, the equipment of the milk room and of course the hygiene and quality requirements for fresh milk.

Since autumn 1996, e.g. in Austria, there are regulations which requires an official acknowledgment of milk heating systems by the State Federal Dairy industry, as a result, the type test, e.g. for batch pasteurizers. Precise control, recording and safety equipments are required. The observance of the MVO is officially monitored by authorities of the federal states. In Germany, the so-called committee for heating has established guidelines which serve as a working model for the office engineers and technical experts, and be considered as a decision support for admission of milk pasteurizers. The interpretation of these guidelines is the responsibility of the states.

According to the dairy hygiene regulations in Austria, with effect from 1st January 1998, only pasteurized milk products can be marketed. Exceptions are raw milk at direct farm sales and certain cheeses named in the regulation.

According to the dairy hygiene regulations in Austria, with effect from 1st January 1998, only pasteurized milk products can be marketed. Exceptions are raw milk at direct farm sales and certain cheeses named in the regulation. Permanently increasing rules of hygiene to the farm milk processing and changing customers have resulted that even the farmers have to deal with the topic of pasteurization. Many farmers sell large quantities of milk to sensitive groups of customers such as hospitals, nursing homes, schools, etc. The milk delivered to these facilities must be pasteurized.

Comparison of short-time heating and continuous heating

If you compare the advantages and disadvantages of both types of pasteurizers, batch pasteurizers have the disadvantage of high energy expenditure and no heat recovery, but are easier to handle and to control. Thus, the cleaning of the container can be carried out manually and directly controlled. For the control of the correct pasteurization only temperature recording is required for the continuous heating. The cleaning of flow pasteurizers is technically more complex and can not be controlled directly without decomposition. The monitoring of the correct time and temperature of pasteurization requires a very high technical effort.

Batch pasteurizers series WP / WPD from Etscheid

Bild T-Kurve

Temperature curve batch pasteurizer WPD 450
Content: 300 l milk

The Federal dairy industry in Lower Austria Wolfpassing was commissioned with the type test of the batch pasteurizers according to the new Milk Hygiene Directive and the Directive for equipment and testing of heating facilities for pasteurization of raw milk. The batch pasteurizers WP / WPD 100, WP 200, WP 300 and WP 450 have passed this strict examination and carry the seal of the milk testing institute Wolfpassing. The in collaboration with Wolfpassing developed Directive for requirement to batch pasteurizers was developed in close cooperation with the German laboratories in Kiel and Weihenstephan and with the European testing. Our pasteurizers are recognized throughout Europe as a vessel for carrying out the continuous pasteurization. The Federal Dairy Research in Kiel (now MRI, Max Ruber-Institut) has recognized the test of Wolfpassing. Another type test of the Etscheid batch pasteurizers in Germany is not necessary.

In a three-walled insulated vessel the milk is cooled indirectly by water or is heated by means of a standard heating or hot water. Certain additional electronic equipment control the temperature and the stirring. The product line for the model WP ranges from 50 – 450 litres. The vessel is only suitable for unpressurized operation.

The structural difference between the WP and the WPD is that for the WPD both the bottom as well as the side walls are designed as a heat exchanger. Thus, the heating and cooling is made by water from external heating and ice storage. The model WPD is available with capacity 200, 300 and 450 litres.

Cheese harps, cutting devices, cheese presses, drip tables etc. are available as accessories.

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